Feed the World: How Can We Make More of Our Crops?

Image Credit: ReSplashed

With a growing population of humans, the strain on the land is certainly showing. This means that we need to find new ways to feed ourselves without ruining the environment. In other words, we need to figure out the optimal way to sustain our population long term.

Enter agronomy.

This is the science of figuring out how to produce more food, keep the soil healthy and even develop healthier foods. While you might think that this depends on GM crops, it is actually much more diverse and takes in all kinds of methods such as crop rotation, the best fertilizers and pest control too.

Specialists such as MKC have been working on various agronomy techniques for years and can offer all sorts of valuable advice. You can contact us for more information, but in the meantime, here are a few things you can do yourself to make the most of your land.

Selective Breeding

One of the best ways to produce excellent crops is to select your breeding plants very carefully. Gardeners and farmers have been doing this for hundreds of years and it is quite a simple process. All you need to do is pick your best plants and breed them together, then do the same over and again until you notice the characteristics you are looking for.

If you aren’t comfortable with GM crops, you can use selective pollination to breed the healthiest plants in order to encourage those traits. Over a few generations, you should see some significant differences and be able to produce bigger crops, more resistant crops or even novel, unique crops.

Mixed Cropping

Sometimes when looking for ways to innovate and improve current methods, the past is a good place to look. Planting single crops is a relatively recent idea, but before the industrialization of agriculture, farmers would plant multiple crops in the same field. With the right crops planted together, this can still create the perfect situation for crops to grow. This is called mixed cropping.

Even on a large farm, mixing crops like maize, beans and pumpkins is a great way to improve the way that your crops grow, keeping the soil in good condition and optimizing the yield you get. With the different species of crops, you will also attract different beneficial insects, creating a fabulous biodiversity.

Technological Advances

Though we tend to think of technology as a cause of environmental problems, it is also the best chance we have of understanding the environment and optimizing conditions to improve the situation. In fact, whether you use technology to track changes, control climates or monitor results, you can certainly find a way to put it to good use.

As more and more food is required, it is important that farmers look to every possible way of improving crops and looking after the soil they grow in. Choosing the right crops through selective breeding, planting complementary crops together to create a biodiverse growing area and using technology to track results can all work together to build the future of agricultural practice.

Contributed Post.

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The Big Cosmic Show – Total Eclipse 2017

Hi everyone! On August 21st, the solar eclipse took place and what a show it was. The path of totality, where one would see a total eclipse, crossed the U.S.A. from Oregon to South Carolina. I had heard the reports that there would be tremendous traffic in the areas around the path of totality, but, being within 100 miles of a total eclipse for the first time in my life, I decided to go for it. I’d never seen a total solar eclipse and felt it would be almost criminal for me to miss this one because of fears of heavy traffic. And, to get an idea of what to look for during a total eclipse, and also ways of making pinhole viewers, I checked out YouTube, which can be very helpful in finding out about lot’s of things.

The Trip There

I was prepared. Totality in Salem, Oregon would take place around 10:17am local time, so, I got up around 4am and left about 5:15am. I mapped out a back road route in advance and armed with my maps, gps, and a packed lunch, eclipse glasses, a home-made pinhole viewer, and my camera, I set out. Traffic going to Salem was much better than I expected and I arrived there in about an hour and 15 minutes, which is near normal. I realized, people had been arriving over the previous 4 to 5 days, so the influx was more gradual, and I figured this might be the case, but, being a possible once-in-a-lifetime event, I wasn’t taking any chances.

My Viewing Site

I didn’t go to one of the advertised venues, but instead opted for a supermarket parking lot on the east side of Salem. I found easy, and free, parking. The beautiful thing about an event like this is, you can view it from anywhere, it’s not like a greatly anticipated movie, rock concert, or sports event where you have to go to a specific place, this is visible across a wide path from anywhere in town or between towns for that matter.

There were a few others there, including someone with a telescope, using it to project an image of the sun and eclipse on a large white sheet of paper, and this was actually more effective and safer than the glasses, and more detailed than the pinhole viewer, though the pinhole viewer was definitely effective in showing the advancing eclipse.

Total Solar Eclipse 2017. Man with telescope using it to project image of eclipse on large white paper. Looks great! – 8/21/2017

Remember! – Never look at the sun without certified eclipse glasses or filters! Best and safest is to look indirectly using a projection on a surface or a pinhole viewer! Otherwise your eyes can be damaged instantly! Only during totality in an eclipse is it safe to look with the naked eye!

What I Saw

At first, when the eclipse started, you didn’t notice much darkening or lessening of the amount of light. What you could notice, as I had learned from YouTube, is that, the light coming through the leaves of a tree will actually show the crescent sun as the eclipse advances! I saw this for myself! And, this effect is visible whether or not the eclipse itself is total, partial, or annular. (Where the moon doesn’t quite cover the sun but leaves a full circle of light instead of totality.)

Total Solar Eclipse 2017. Crescent suns on the ground after totality as seen through the tree leaves. – 8/21/2017

There is another effect which is sometimes happens just before and after totality, called “shadow snakes”, in which these shimmering shadowy lines appear, but this is somewhat rare and I didn’t see this, but, in retrospect, I could see where it may have been close to happening.

As the light dims, which you do start to notice at around 85-90 percent totality, it looks different from the dimming of light when the sun sets normally or when clouds move in. And, you can “See” the moon’s shadow coming, as a darkening of the sky. It also looked to be changing to a darker blue, again, different from a normal sunset. And, the street and parking lot lights come on as well! Then, totality hits and it gets almost as dark as night much quicker than it would in a normal sunset. At this point, you can look at the sun without protection, with the naked ye, safely. And what a sight!

Total Solar Eclipse 2017. Sun in totality. Light from corona makes sun look like it is shining but in actuality, it is dark as it is covered by the moon, which one would see in person or with a better camera. – 8/21/2017

You do see the sun’s corona from behind the moon, which is a pitch black circle in the sky. You can also see stars and planets. I saw Venus, which, where it was, would be completely obscured by the sun’s light before and after totality. In the photo I took, the light of the corona does overwhelm the dark circle of the moon, and no photo does it justice.

The temperature does drop, though I was too engrossed in the eclipse to really notice it myself. Also, all along the horizon, you see distant light as in a sunset, but overhead and nearly to the horizon, it’s a night sky! They refer to this as a “360 degree sunset or sunrise” And it is really different and worth seeing.

Where I was, totality lasted about a minute and 56 seconds roughly. When the sun starts reappearing, there’s a sort of flash at one end of the moon’s rim making it look like a diamond ring. At this time it is no longer safe to look at the sun with the naked eye!

And, the light again looks different from normal sunlight. It first looks like the light is coming from a very powerful electric spotlight from far away, like standing in a big football or athletic field at night with only one light on, shining down on the filed. Then, still slowly but seemingly faster than before totality, the light starts coming back, still with that strange dimness, but then returns to normal. And, on the projection of the sun or through a pinhole viewer, you see a now reappearing and growing crescent sun, the crescent appearing on the opposite side.

Though the totality only lasts a very short time, the partial eclipse usually lasts about two hours, so you can still use the pinhole viewer to view the remaining partial eclipse.

In Conclusion – My Thoughts

Total Solar Eclipse 2017. Me just after the totality phase of the eclipse, as shown on the projection in the background. – 8/21/2017

I had considered staying where I lived to view the eclipse, where it would be 99.2 percent totality, but everything I’d read from those who had seen a total eclipse said that there was a huge difference, like the difference between “going to the prom vs actually getting married”, or “hitting 5 numbers in the lottery vs hitting 5 plus the mega or power number for the top jackpot”, so I went and it was worth it! It did take me 2 1/2 hours to get home using back roads, but I’d do it again even if it took me twice as long to get home! I found that the comparisons that I read bout are true and I’m glad I went down to Salem to see my first total solar eclipse! It was quite a show and not one to be missed!

Here’s  the video I took during the eclipse. Enjoy!

Happy Observing!


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Leapin’ Lizards, It’s Leap Day!

So, its February 29th, that special day that comes every 4 years. A year with a February 29th is, as we all know, a “leap” year.

So, where did this come from? Well, there is a lot of history behind it, but, basically, in earlier times, they found that calendars, growing and planting seasons, and so on, were getting further and further off until it was realized that our planet’s year is not exactly 365 days. It really is closer to 365 ¼ days.

So, to insure that Christmas doesn’t eventually drift into what would now be July, an extra day was added to February every 4 years to catch up, or “leap” back to the correct time. Hence, the leap year, and leap day, February 29th.

Now, to be sure, the Earth doesn’t complete an orbit exactly in 365 ¼ days, and, the planet’s orbital speed and daily rotation changes imperceptibly over time, so, every so often the correct time is adjusted by a few seconds here and there. This so our days and years continue to match the seasons and our calendars.

So, Happy Leap Day, everyone!

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Our Brains: What We Really Have

You’ve put the cat in his room and have closed the door, so he won’t get into things while you sleep. All you had to do was to close the door. Then, later that night, there’s the smell of smoke. It wakes the cat, but he can’t get out of the room to warn you. Luckily, something else wakes you and you smell the smoke, locate its source, and prevent the fire.

Now, let’s say you had no cat but a 5-year-old child. And, like the cat, you’ve closed the door to the child’s room. Like the cat, the child wakes up, smells smoke, and opens the door and wakes you in time, something the cat could not do or think of.

That’s because of our brains. We’re so caught up in our lives, that we seldom think about the advantages that our brains give us over the other animals.

Oh, they’re obvious enough to us to the point that we never ask our pets to bring us a glass of water, but we don’t really think about it. Especially when it comes to comprehension, which I believe might be the true 6th sense.

And yet it can be seen in even seemingly unimportant things.

For instance, when I was much younger and living at home, we had various dogs, including 3 greyhounds at one point. It was quite cold one night and my folks put blankets over the dogs so they could keep warm. Of course, overnight, the dogs would move and the blankets would come off.

So, when I awoke first that morning and noticed the now uncovered dogs still sleeping, my thought was that I wished that they could think of grabbing the blankets with their mouths and pull the blankets back up over them.  A human child would have thought to reach for the blanket and cover himself again. The difference amazed me then and still does now. And I realized just how powerful this ability, that we humans have, to think and comprehend really is.

And while chimpanzees and dolphins have shown signs of having greater comprehension than other animals, they still don’t have it to the extent that humans do.

And it’s quite a gift. To see a stick and know immediately that you can use it to pry up a rock, or to see the notepad that you have and immediately know to use it as a temporary shield against the sudden rain as you run to your car.

Just something to think about.

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Shrinking Time

Time flies. Time flies? Yes, and ever faster!

When I was about 6 years old, my grandmother was telling me how I would finish grade school, go on to high school, and then college at 18. Well, for me at the time, a year was nearly forever, and age 18 seemed to be so far away time wise that there wasn’t enough time in the universe to reach that age!

Well, I certainly did reach 18, and the 4 years of high school seemed to pass far more quickly than I would have ever imagined at age 6. And, when I entered college, I saw that I was almost as old as professional ball players.

Then, before I knew it, I’d reached my 30’s and, when I thought about it, I realized that many students graduating high school at this point hadn’t even been born yet when I’d graduated!

Now, some years later, not only have most of the professional ball players at the time I graduated retired, but their replacements have, too!

And that year’s time that seemed nearly forever to my 6-year-old self, is nearly next month to me now.

So, why does time seem to “rocket” by now, and why is that everlasting year seeming to last only a month now? Is it just me?

The truth is, no, it’s not just me, but everyone feels this as they get older. I read once that this has to do with a “kind of relativity” or changing perspective as one gets older.

As the article explained, to a six-year-old kid, a year is one sixth of his lifetime. To a sixty year old person, one year is only one sixtieth of his lifetime. To look at it another way, it would take 10 years for the 60-year-old to “feel” the same length of time has passed that the 6-year-old would feel with just 1 year passing. This is why, more and more, it feels to me like time is not just flying, but “rocketing” past.

I don’t know if this is just mental, or physiological as well. But it does make sense to me. I remember as a kid, hearing my parents and other adults refer to times 20 and 30 years past and thinking it was like ancient history to me. And now, I can recall times 20 and 30 years in my past, and it doesn’t seem that long ago.

It’s pretty amazing when you stop and think about it.

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Driver-less Cars, the Way of the Future?

Recently, there was an article about driver-less cars on Yahoo. it was quite interesting, dealing with both facts and possibilities as to what it could mean. The article talked about how laws might have to be rewritten, insurance rates and accident rates would go down, and how there would be a “transition” from the cars we now have to the driver-less variety. So, what are some of the issues and what are some of the facts?

How close are we to having driver-less cars become commonplace? They are being developed now, and Google actually has a working model, but they are still in their infancy. Most likely, the first ones that are made available to the public will be very expensive, as is usually the case with any new technology. And like the newest technology, they will have the least features and most bugs. As to how far away the first generation of widely produced and seen models are, some articles on the subject say that it could be in as little as ten years’ time. But a lot of hurdles will need to be overcome, and they are not just about the technology.

Even if the first models available for public purchase make an excellent debut, many, many people will be reluctant to trust a vehicle to drive itself. I once read an article that said that the biggest reason that people fear flying is that they know that they have so little control if anything goes wrong. At least in a car, despite it being far less safe than flying, people feel that they are in control. People will perceive having less control being in a car that drives itself, and will be reluctant to trust driver-less cars. Of course, it depends how the technology is introduced. If gradually, with only a few functions being taken over by each progressive car model, then more people will get used to the idea of the fully driver-less car. However, even then, actually giving up the wheel itself will make many people reluctant.

Then there are other issues and questions.

Will a driver-less car really, really, be able to avoid an accident or be able to tell if a route has construction or some other obstacle ahead of time?

Can it predict, during the transition time from driver required to driver-less cars, what the driver of a driver required car will do?

And of course, “Can we now text, since we won’t be ‘driving'”

Then, there are those who just like the idea of driving themselves. In a world where there are only driver-less cars, you won’t be able to take those winding roads the way you  want to, for instance. And, that rite of passage of getting your first license may become history.

On the plus side, there’d be fewer illegal drag races, and drunk driving would be far less of a problem, hopefully leading to greatly reduced insurance rates.

And possibly, people who, today, cannot, or will not, drive, may have more transportation options on the table, since, you may no longer need a driver’s license.

To get some picture of the myths and facts of driver-less cars at this time, November, 2014, go to http://www.techrepublic.com/article/8-truths-and-myths-of-driverless-cars/

If driver-less cars become a reality, it could mean some really big changes down the road, so to speak.

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So, If Aliens Exist, Where Are They?

Recently, a lot of earth-like planets have been discovered, and UFO sightings have been happening forever. Which has led to a general speculation about the existence of alien civilizations, fueled in part by science fiction movies and books, especially when there’s a notable movie, story, or incident, such as the Roswell incident, movies such as “”Close Encounters of the 3rd Kind“, “ET“, “Avatar“, and books such as “Chariots of the gods”.

And of course you have people on both sides of the debate on whether or not aliens exist. Where do I stand on this matter?

I do believe that aliens exist. But I’m not a zealot where possible evidence is concerned. Not every UFO, or picture of one, is necessarily an alien craft and I don’t know if ancient monuments and art were created by, or depictions of, real aliens.

But I also find it incredibly hard to believe that we are completely alone in the universe when we haven’t even begun to scratch the surface in exploring it yet. So when I hear people, including people who are prominent in society say that they don’t believe aliens exist, I think they are like the kid telling his parent he can’t find what he’s looking for when he hasn’t even looked in his room, let alone his closet or the rest of the whole house!

Of course, we still don’t have “it”, the evidence which would be absolute in proving the existence of aliens, such as their openly visible arrival here, a truly “readable” signal from them where we would know that it could only have come from intelligent life and not be something nature could create, or an artifact left here that we would somehow know was not created by humans or nature.

There is what is known as the Fermi Paradox, which attempts to explain why we haven’t been contacted yet or have found any absolute evidence of the existence of aliens.

Now, after having read an article some time ago regarding what it would take to have a successful mission to Mars, I can see that we are still very far away from having the technology to build a ship fast enough with the capability of keeping its crew alive and well for the duration, to make an interstellar journey feasible. This may also be why aliens may not have visited us yet.

What about radio signals? Some theorists say that we may be on different frequencies from what alien civilizations may be using. Possibly. But what if we are on the same frequency?

We’ve had radio since 1914. It’s 2014 now, so the first radio signals, which travel at the speed of light, have only traveled 100 light years. Any civilization further out than that, will not have received them yet. And since there’s no video, but only sound, the alien civilization would have to try to decipher the message first and determine where it came from, before it could send a meaningful reply.

And remember, a civilization only 80-90 light years from us will have only received our signals 10-20 years ago. And, once they reply, if they do, it will take 80-90 years for their reply to reach us!

But let’s say a civilization advanced enough to have radio astronomy, and enlightened enough to believe that other civilizations exist in the universe, and is only 50 light years away, receives our radio signals. Even if they only took a year to decipher the message, find out where it came from, and sent a reply back to us after that year’s time, their message back to us is still a year away from arriving here!

And if you look at just how big the universe is, (The nearest star is 4 light years away and the galaxy is 100,000 light years across with over 100 billion stars!), it’s easy to see that there might not be a civilization capable of receiving and sending radio signals within that 50 light year radius.

With video like that from TV signals, an alien civilization that can pick them up will have a better idea of what they’re seeing and has a better chance of figuring out what is being said as well as what we look like. But, TV did not come into use until the 1940’s, so these signals have only gone out about 70 light years, and if we were to get a reply back, again, assuming an almost immediate reply, that civilization would have to be no further from us than 35 light years in order for us to get that reply this year.

Also, this assumes that a civilization is advanced enough and also interested, in radio communication with us or any other civilization.

We’ve come from ancient Egypt and ancient China to now, a span of about 5,000 years, in which only in the past 200 years have we had any kind of electronic communications. A civilization only 300 years behind us could be as close as the nearest star, but we cannot know with radio astronomy alone since they’d have no way of even knowing our signals exist and nothing they have would be emitting any signals for us to pick up!

What about more advanced civilizations? Certainly they could pick up our signals and send replies back, maybe faster than light, too?

Yes, most likely, so why haven’t we heard from them? They may be too far out and haven’t received our signals yet and don’t yet have a way to “reach out and grab” them. Or they may not be interested or truly believe there aren’t other alien civilizations, and so have no interest in looking or listening.

Or it could be a case of information overload.

In 5,000 years of human civilization, we still haven’t reached or have seen all areas beneath our oceans, under the polar ice caps, or the interior of our own planet, let alone the other worlds of our solar system. Imagine an advanced civilization with access to 5, 10, or even 100 life-bearing worlds that it has already reached with manned missions. They may know about our world but just don’t have time yet to even begin exploring or communicating with us yet!

With our space telescope having discovered over 700 earth like worlds now, I can see how this could be the case. And if a means to reach them easily and safely should ever be discovered, especially if within this century, and especially if life is discovered on many of them, we, especially the scientific community, will be like a kid who’s just gotten a million toys! Every scientific organization and publication wouldn’t know where to explore first and they’d all be crying for people to come work for them as field explorers! It would be amazing!

For now, though, we can only speculate, wait, and continue to listen and explore. Someday, though, I’m sure we will find “it”, that evidence which truly proves beyond all doubt that we are not alone.

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